An Overview of Science and Technology Management
In general, pengeluaran sgp is the combination of scientific methods, skills, systems, and practices employed in the development of products or services, or in the achievement of goals, for instance technological research. The use of technology in business is a broad term that includes the application of scientific knowledge to solve problems in different fields. Examples of technological innovations include the computer, microchip, cellular phones, satellite communications, steamboat engines, and cellular data transmission. Technological change can be both rapid and diffuse, with examples of such change include computer networking, industrial revolution, digital printing, and medical robotics. In business, technological change can be implemented by reusing parts or materials, designing new products or processes, applying complex scientific and technological principles to non-business applications, or simply by improving the performance of existing products or services.
Businesses must implement technology in order to remain competitive and to ensure continued growth. As noted above, technological change can take many forms, including the application of scientific principles to non-business activities, the utilization of complex scientific knowledge in business, and even the improvement of existing products or services. Because knowledge is not static, it will necessarily be subject to revision, though this process may be slowed if certain constraints are put in place. There are many challenges that businesses face in incorporating new technologies into their operations. These include evaluating the costs and benefits of technological change, educating management and key employees about the changes, educating consumers about the new technologies, ensuring adequate IT support, communicating the changes to employees and other business partners, and ensuring compliance with legal requirements.
Although all these issues are important, the business must also recognize that knowledge is a scarce resource, especially in an economy where most people are familiar with computers and the Internet. There is a great deal of potential for conflict and misunderstanding over what technology entails, what it can do, and how it should be used. Scientific and technological change can affect people’s lives in many ways, including the design of products and services, the regulation of business, the distribution of information and other forms of knowledge, and the maintenance of human relationships. While business must learn to work with technology, it must also recognize and account for the limitations of technology in certain areas. Both these objectives are part of the process of scientific management.
Scientific management recognizes that the relationship between people and technology is a two-way street: individuals must contribute to the growth of technology, but technology itself has to provide access to knowledge for the population as a whole. The ultimate goal of scientific research and study is to better understand and model the universe in which we live. To achieve this goal, management must work to facilitate communication between the science and technology community, the public, and the scientific community itself. Individuals and organizations that have a stake in the study of science and technology are generally welcomed into the fold.
Because knowledge is not always available on hand, management must engage in processes of collecting, protecting, and disseminating this knowledge throughout the organization. These processes typically include policies, procedures, documentation, training, and feedback mechanisms. Properly implemented, these processes ensure that technology is used and abused properly and that it provides accurate information to all parties involved. This information can help to guide decisions about technology adoption, research and development, and education and training.
As important as technology is to science and engineers, it is even more essential to society at large. Science and technology-related issues affect all aspects of life, including decision making, societal structure, economy, and technological advancement. Science and technology are thus a significant element in our everyday lives. It is vital that management work closely with disciplines such as physics, biology, chemistry, computer science, electrical engineering, and engineering to maximize the impact of science on society.